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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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Pachycephalosaurs were among some of the last Dinosaur groups to appear. They lived 75-65 mya.


They are named after one of the best-known members of the group, Pachycephalosaurus.

Pachycephalosaurus means "thick-headed reptile," due to the domed and hugely thickened bone on the top of its skull--like a cyclist's crash helmet.

About 15 feet long from nose to tail, Pachycephalosaurus lived in Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

Stegoceras, which also lived in North America, was about 8 feet long, with a body the size of a goat.

Homalocephale was about 10 feet long and had a flatter skull. It lived in East Asia.

Pachycephalosaurs may have defended themselves by loweringtheir heads and charging at their enemies.

At breeding time, the males may have engaged in head-butting contests, as some sheep and goats do today.

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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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Stegosaurus was the largest of the stegosaur group. Its fossils were found mainly in present-day Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Like most of its group, Stegosaurus lived toward the end of the Jurassic period, about 150 mya.

Stegosaurus was about 25-30 feet long from nose to tail and probably weighed more than 2 tons.

Its most striking feature was the row of large, roughly triangular bony plates along its back.

The name Stegosaurus means "roof reptile". This is because it was first thought that its bony plates lay flat on its back, overlapping like the tiles on a roof.

It is now thought that the back plates stood upright in two long rows.

The plates may have been for body temperature control, allowing the dinosaur to warm up quickly if it stood side-on to the sun's rays.

The back plates may have been covered with brightly colored skin, possibly to intimidate enemies--they were to flimsy for protection.
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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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Dilophosaurus probably weighed about 1,100 pounds--as much as the biggest polar bears today.

Eustreptospondylus means "well-curved backbone". This is due to the arrangement of its spine sa seen in its fossils.

The remains of 60 Allosaurus were found in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry in Utah.

According to some experts, Ornitholestes may have had a slight ridge or crest on its nose. Other experts disagree.

Oviraptor had two bony spikes inside its mouth that it may have used to crack open eggs when it closed its jaws.

On each foot, a Dromaeosaur had a large, curved claw that it could swing in an arc to slash through its victim's flesh.

Archaeopteryx was covered with feathers that had the same detailed designs found in those covering flying birds today.

To maintain their huge bodies, sauropods probably had to eat for 20 hours a day.

Remains of Anchisaurus were the first fossils of a dinosaur to be found in North America, in 1818.
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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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Coelophysis was a small, agile dinosaur that lived at the start of the Age of Dinosaurs, about 220 mya.

A huge collection of Coelophysis fossils were found in the 1940s, at a place called Ghost Ranch, New Mexico.

Hundreds of Coelophysis fossils were preserved together at Ghost Ranch---possibly a herd that drowned in a flood.

Coelophysis was almost 10 feet in total length. Its slim, lightweight build meant that it probably weighed 55-60 pounds.

Coelophysis belonged to the group of dinosaurs known as theropods. It most likely ate small animals such as insects, worms, and lizards.

Long, powerful back legs allowed Coelophysis to run fast.

The front limbs were like arms, each with a hand bearing three large, strong, sharp-clawed fingers for grabbing prey.

The birdlike skull was filled with small, sharp teeth.

Coelophysis means "hollow form". It was called that because some of its bones were hollow, like the bones of birds making it lightly built.
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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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A small, wormlike creature called Pikaia is thought to be the ancestor of all backboned animals.

Its fossil remains were found in the 530- million-year-old mudstone deposits of the Burgess Shale in Canada.

Pikaia was the first known chordate. All backboned animals belong to this group as well as marine animals called tunicates and acraniates.

Pikaia was 2 inches long, with a notochord running around its body-- a kind of primitive spine that gave its body flexibility.

The notochord also allowed the animal's simple muscles to work against it, and the animal's body organs to hang from it.

Pikaia is very similar to a modern creature called Branchiostoma, a small, transparent creature that lives in the sand at the bottom of the sea.

As it lacks a bony skeleton, paired fins, and jaws, Pikaia is not really
a fish.

Pikaia is a more complex creature than many other animals found in the Burgess Shale. It suggests that other complex creatures must have lived before it, although there is no fossil evidence for this.
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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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Vascular plants are more suited to living on drier land than mosses and liverworts.

They have branching stems with tubelike walls that carry water and nutrients.

These stems and walls also mean the plants can stand tall. Vascular plants have spores (reproductive cells, like seeds)-the taller the plant, the more widely it can disperse its spores.

One of the first known vascular plants was Cooksonia. It was about 2 inches tall, with a forked stem.

Paleontologists discovered fossil remains of Cooksonia in England.

Rhynie in Scotland is one site where lots of vascular plant fossils have been found.

The plants at Rhynie would have grown on the sandy edges of pools in the early Devonian period. (400 mya)

One plant fossil found at Rhynie is Aglaophyton, which stood around 18 inches high.

Aglaophyton had underground roots and tissues that supported the plant stem. It also had water-carrying tubes and stomata that allowed air and water to pass through.
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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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The first dinosaur appeared around 230-225 mya, in the middle of the Triassic period.

These dinosaurs were small-to-medium meat eaters with sharp teeth and claws. They ran quickly on their two longer back legs .

Fossils of Herrerasaurus date from 228 mya and were found near San Juan in Argentina, South America.

Herrarasaurus was about 10 feet in total length, and probably weighed 200 pounds.

At about the same time and in the same place as Herrarasaurus, there lived a similar-shaped dinosaur named Eoraptor, which was only 5 feet long.

The name Eoraptor means "dawn plunderer" or "early thief".

Staurikosaurus was a meat eater similar to Herrarasaurus. It is known to have lived about the same time, in present day Brazil, South America.

Procompsognathus was another early meat eater. It lived in the late Triassic period in Germany.

Pisanosaurus lived in Argentina in the late Triassic Period, and was only 3 feet long. It may have been a plant eater.
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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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Liverworts grew on mats of blue-green algae, which trapped nitrogen from the air. They used this nitrogen to grow.

Spriggina has a curved, shieldlike end to one part of its body. Some paleontologists think this was its head, while others think it was an anchor that secured it to the seabed.

Hemicyclaspis had eyes on top of its head. This suggests it lived on the seabed and used its eyes to keep a look out for predators above.

Another difference between jawed and jawless fish was that jawed fish had a pair of nostrils, while jawless fish had just one.

Prehistoric sharks' jaws were fixed to the side of their skull, while modern day sharks' jaws hang beneath their braincase, which gives them a more powerful bite.

Suitable fins were not the only feature that meant lobe-finned fish could evolve into land-dwelling animals. They also had lungs for breathing air!

Acanthostega had fishlike gills for breathing water as well as lungs for breathing air.
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Guide by GabsSaw posted over a year ago
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The First living things on earth were single-celled bacteria an cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae.

Blue-green algae emerged about 3,500 mya.(million years ago).
It contains chlorophyll and was the first living organism to use photosynthesis or make energy using sunlight.

Over millions of years, the algae was able to produce enough oxygen to help more complex organisms to evolve.

True algae, which is regarded as a plant, evolved around 1,000 mya.

By 550 mya, multi celled plants began to appear, including seaweeds.

Algae and lichens were the first plants to appear on land.

Bryophyte plants emerged on land around 440 mya. Bryophytes are simple, seedless green plants.

Unlike vascular plants, which rvolved later, bryophytes cannot grow high above the ground because they do not have stems.

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Opinion by cure_lovely posted over a year ago
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Abelisaurus
"Abel's lizard" has been reconstructed from a single skull.

Achillobator
This fierce raptor was discovered in modern-day Mongolia.

Acrocanthosaurus
The largest predator of the early Cretaceous period.

Adasaurus
This raptor's hind claws were unusually small.

Aerosteon
This "air-boned" dinosaur may have breathed like a bird.

Afrovenator
One of the few carnivores ever to be dug up in north Africa.

Albertonykus
A tiny, birdlike, North American dinosaur.

Albertosaurus
This carnivore was a close cousin of T. Rex.

Alectrosaurus
Few specimens of this "unmarried lizard" have been found.


Alioramus
All we know of this tyrannosaur is based on a single skull.

Allosaurus
One of the most common predators of the Jurassic period.

Alvarezsaurus
A bird-like dinosaur of the late Cretaceous.
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List by cure_lovely posted over a year ago
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Aardonyx
An early stage in the evolution of sauropods.

Abrictosaurus
An early relative of Heterodontosaurus.

Abrosaurus
A close Asian relative of Camarasaurus.

Abydosaurus
The intact skull of this sauropod was discovered in 2010.

Acanthopholis
No, it's not a city in Greece.

Achelousaurus
Might this have been a growth stage of Pachyrhinosaurus?

Acristavus
This early hadrosaur lacked any ornamentation on its skull.

Acrotholus
North America's earliest bone-headed dinosaur.

Adamantisaurus
This titanosaur was named 50 years after its discovery.


Adeopapposaurus
A close relative of Massospondylus.

Aegyptosaurus
Guess what country this titanosaur was found in?

Aeolosaurus
Could this titanosaur have reared up on its hind legs?

Agilisaurus
This "agile lizard" was one of the earliest ornithopods.
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Article by dragonsmemory posted over a year ago
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Could you have survived as a dinosaur? Answer these questions to find out.

1. You are a hadrosaur living in North America during the late Cretaceous period. You have come to a turning and must either go left, where a herd of ceratopsians awaits you, or turn right, where a lone Albertasaurus is standing. Which way do you turn?
A. Left
B. Right

2. You are a Gallimimus living in the Gobi Desert 70 million years ago. You see a Tarbosaurus in the distance, slowly coming your way. What should you do?
A. Run away
B. Hide

3. You are a Leaellynasaura living in southern Australia during the Cretaceous period. Winter is coming and the weather is ggetting colder. Should you make a long journey to findawarmer area for the winter or stay in southern Australia?
A. Make a long journey
B. Stay where you are

4. You are the sauropod Diplodocus, one of the longest and largest dinosaurs. You have wandered way from yourherd in search of food when you see an Allosaurus approaching. What should you do?
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Fan fiction by andresandru posted over a year ago
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"try it!" Mr FLintson said to his kid, to try his new invention, Daniel, the kid of 14 years, was testing something called "the chameleon device", a device witch let you imitate the form of any live beeing, it copied the structure language and habilities, everything, Daniel pointed at a cientist, he presed the device, it let out an almost invisible light, then, he moved the cdevice and he transformed into the cientist, this remembered him of ben 10.



"dad, why am I trying this?"



"Daniel, your uncle went on a mission in outer space, but he was intercepted by a giantic creature, you and your brother will go to that location to save him, but through a new teletransporter" the Father showed a verry large object, it had a chamber up of it, and many, many cables, Samuel, Daniel's brother, gave one step back.



"I'm not going into that thing, what if those are weird aliens, or some sort of creatures, if thay got our uncle that means they can get us!" Samuel said, kind of scared
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List by godzillaman999 posted over a year ago
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Vote to think who you think is going to win on the picks i will make the fights. there will be 28 dinosaurs in the first round. which ever one gets voted the most wins! Go to picks. there will be 1 dinosaur to be voted to you. i'm not voteing because i made this. so it's up to you to see who will win tournment. that dinosaur will be the winner forever in this club if he gets voted the most in the final match. So vote for your dinosaur! how the dinosaur loses is he does not get voted the most. so he's out! if it's a tie, i will redo the match until it is over. so good luck!
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