The beryl gemstone means the beryl gemstones of various colors except the aquamarine and emerald. The beryl often takes on different colors due to the content of trace and tiny transitional element. The mains types are as follows:
(1) Golden beryl: It is a kind of transparent crystal of beryl, taking on yellow, golden or light orange yellow color. The reason of coloration is that there is iron in the chemical element. The refractive index is 1.570 – 1.575 and the birefringence is 0.005. It has polychroism, from weak green yellow to yellow. The Mohs hardness is 7.5 and the relative density is 2.68 – 2.70.
(2) Red beryl: It is a kind of transparent crystal of beryl which contains lithium, cesium (Cs), manganese (Mn), taking on pink and red violet. The refractive index is 1.572 – 1.592, the birefringence is 0.006 – 0.008 and increase along with the content of cesium (Cs). The polychroism is apparent, from light red to deep blue red. The Mohs hardness is 7.5 and the relative density is 2.71 – 2.90.
(3) Purplish red beryl: It is a kind of purplish red beryl and the color is like the amethyst very much.
(4) Aquamarine beryl: It means the yellow green beryl. The color is like the yellow green olivine very much, that is green with yellow hue and it also has the ocean blue and sky blue hue of aquamarine.
(5) Goshenite: A kind of colorless and transparent beryl.
(6) Fuscous beryl: A kind of beryl with star effect and antique copper glisten. The star effect is caused inclusion of mohsite lining regularly and the glisten is caused by the lamellar inclusion lining parallel with the underside. This type was firstly found in the Mina Gerais state of Brazil.
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