As a captain of the Gotei 13, Byakuya is extremely skilled in all forms of Soul Reaper combat. In keeping with his rank, Byakuya's abilities allow him to defeat opponents of captain-level ability without much effort.
Of particular note is Byakuya's speed: he is skilled in the use of flash steps, having trained with (but never surpassed) Flash Master Yoruichi Shihōin. Yoruichi also taught Byakuya some techniques of her own creation that involved flash steps, including one called utsusemi (空蝉, lit. empty cicada, in reference to their molting), which allows Byakuya to move out of harm's way while leaving an afterimage behind. One of Byakuya's favorite techniques, as described by Renji, is senka (闪花, lit. Flash Blossom), a flash step combined with a spin to quickly move behind the enemy, followed by a combination of two quick thrusts to destroy the opponents soul chain and soul sleep in one move, destroying their power. In his battle with Zommari Leroux, he is able to maintain his composure and fight at full speed, despite being forced to cut the tendons in his left leg and arm to prevent Zommari from gaining control of them.
Byakuya has also displayed knowledge of high level kidō spells, and is able to cast spells up to number 81 without the incantation. He is adept at using them strategically, such as disrupting the movement of Renji's bankai with a well-timed fire spell and damaging Ichigo's right arm by using a low-level lightning spell at point-blank range to burn a hole through his shoulder.